Application of Ginkgo biloba extract in feed
Application of Ginkgo biloba extract in feed
Ginkgo biloba extract contains flavonoids and other active substances. As a new feed additive, Ginkgo biloba extract has high application value in aquaculture industry. In this paper, the biological function of Ginkgo biloba extract and its application in aquaculture industry were summarized.
Key words: Ginkgo biloba extract; Active ingredients; Application
Ginkgo biloba, also known as White Fruit Tree and Gongsun Tree, is one of the oldest tree species in China and has the reputation of "living fossil". The development of Ginkgo biloba resources in China is in the ascendant and has a very broad prospect. Ginkgo biloba has attracted much attention at home and abroad because of its special growth pattern and strong disease resistance. More and more attention has been paid to the research on the effective ingredients and curative effects of Ginkgo biloba, and health care products, cosmetics, drugs and so on have been developed. Ginkgo biloba active ingredients are valuable medicinal raw materials, which have been paid great attention to in many European countries, as well as in Japan, Korea and other countries. With the development of science and technology and intensive breeding, the input cost of animal husbandry is also increasing. In order to reduce the pressure of cost and maximize profits, some feed farmers and feed processing enterprises use a large number of antibiotics and hormones, which lead to excessive residues in livestock products. As early as 2006, the EU banned the use of antibiotics for growth promotion in animal feeding. Application of materials. With the optimization and improvement of Ginkgo biloba extract technology, the prospect of Ginkgo biloba extract in feed industry is very promising. In this paper, the application of Ginkgo biloba extract in feed was briefly described.
1. Active Constituents in Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract
The chemical constituents of Ginkgo biloba extract are flavonoids, terpenoids, lactones, phenolic acids, alkaloids, polyisoprene and other compounds. The content varies with varieties, origin, tree age and picking time. Ginkgo biloba extract has the effects of lowering blood sugar and lipid, anti-oxidation and improving immunity .
More than 40 flavonoids have been isolated from Ginkgo biloba leaves, and 20 of them have been identified. The content of total flavonoids is 2.5% - 2.9%. They mainly exist in Ginkgo biloba leaves and exocarp, and are the main medicinal parts of Ginkgo biloba. It is mainly composed of monoflavones and bisflavones. There are 10 kinds of monoflavones, including 4 kinds of free flavones, including kaempferol, quercetin, isorhamnetin and luteolin. Ginkgo biloba flavonoids are a class of compounds which are synthesized from the mother nucleus of two flavonoids by C.C bond. They mainly include Cunninghamia lanceolata flavonoids, Ginkgo biloba flavonoids, Ginkgo biloba flavonoids, Lycopodium mongolicum flavonoids and 5, -methoxy norflavonoids . Ginkgo flavonoids have the functions of vasodilating, inhibiting platelet activating factor, antioxidant and regulating blood lipid. They can be used to treat cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, nephrotic syndrome, diabetes mellitus and vascular dementia .
1.2 terpene lactones
Terpene lactones are one of the main active ingredients in Ginkgo biloba leaves. They are generally referred to as Bilobalide and Ginkgolide A, B and C. The mixture of Ginkgolides A, B and C has entered phase III clinical research, which has been applied to the treatment of asthma and evaluated its effectiveness in the treatment of septic shock, cerebral ischemia, kidney transplantation and burn patients .
1.3 Other Components
It includes organic acids, polypentenols, polysaccharides, 17 kinds of amino acids, various trace elements, white fructol (10129 alkanes), almond, cashew nut phenol, urushioic acid, heptadecane salicylic acid, stigmasterol, alkaloids, vitamins, chlorophyll, carotene and proanthocyanidins .
Biological function of Ginkgo biloba extract
2.1 Improving immunity
Ginkgo biloba extract to improve the body's immunity in humans is relatively more research, in the animal husbandry industry is relatively less research. The effects of Ginkgo biloba bio-feed additives on growth and immunity of yellow-feathered broilers were studied. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba bio-feed additives had positive effects on immune organ factors of immune organs such as spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius . Yang Xiaoyan et al. studied the effects of different proportion of Ginkgo biloba leaves on immunity of broilers. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba leaves had a positive effect on the growth of immune organs of broilers, and also increased the level of serum total protein, globulin and other antibodies . Zhao Wenming et al. studied the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on the activity and function of immune cell enzymes in mice. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract significantly increased the activity of lymphocyte dehydrogenase, and enhanced the activity of granulocyte myeloperoxidase, which had been the phagocytic function of macrophages . Cao Fuliang et al. studied the effects of Ginkgo biloba bio-feed additive on the growth and immunity of yellow feather broilers. The results showed that the relative quality of thymus, spleen and bursa of Fabricius of broilers with Ginkgo biloba bio-feed additive was higher than that of control group in varying degrees, which indicated that Ginkgo biloba bio-feed additive was beneficial to and improved the immunity of yellow feather broilers .
2.2 Anti-inflammation and sterilization
Li Yan et al. showed that Ginkgo biloba extract had better bacteriostasis effect on common pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella multocida in livestock and poultry. It also improved the intestinal microflora of Broilers and inhibited the proliferation of harmful bacteria. Sheng Jianguo et al. used Ginkgo biloba extract to inhibit E. coli, Aspergillus niger, Rhodotorula and Yeast. The results showed that Ginkgo biloba extract had a good inhibitory effect on common contaminated bacteria. The inhibitory concentration was low and the thermal stability was strong. Its bacteriostatic intensity was related to its concentration. The minimum inhibitory concentration of Ginkgo biloba extract to all kinds of bacteria was generally below 8%. Strong anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects . Qu Xiaohua et al.