Effects of Sweeteners on Preference of Weaned Piglets
Absrtact: In this experiment, the preference index (test feed intake / control feed intake) was used as a criterion to examine the effect of different sweeteners on the preference of weaned piglets. The results showed that feeding piglets with different feeding troughs had a certain effect on the feed intake of piglets.
Key words: sweeteners; feeding methods; preference
Taste is first produced by the dissolution of flavoring substances in food in saliva and the contact with stomach cells through taste buds. Taste receptor proteins (taste receptors) or porous proteins (ion channels) on the top microvilli of gastric cells can sense oral chemical stimulation. Taste cells increase the intracellular cation concentration by combining the molecules or ions of odorant substances, thus eliminating the intracellular and extracellular charge differences. This depolarization causes taste cells to release neurotransmitters, activate synapses, and generate electrical signals from the neurons connected to them. The nerve fibers transmit the signals to the brain. The nerve center processes the signals to produce taste of acid, salt, bitterness, sweetness and freshness. Although many vertebrates and non-vertebrates can sense sugar sources and consume sugar greedily, sugar receptors evolve independently in both groups.
Sweet compounds have different chemical structures, which lead to different pathways of sweet information transduction. Sweetness is transmitted in taste cells through the following pathways: sugar-taste cell membrane receptor-GS protein-adenylate cyclase-cAMP-potassium ion conductance-receptor potential-sweetness. Therefore, even if the feeding behavior is animal instinct, in fact, it also receives the regulation of neuronuclear and humoral factors, involving many aspects such as nervous system, endocrine system and active factors. Feeding behavior is an activity closely controlled by the nerve center.
There are many factors regulating feeding, but the hypothalamic neurons integrate information and ultimately regulate appetite through two ways, namely, orexin neurons and aprotinin neurons. Glycolipid metabolism and free radical content in hypothalamic cells also play an important role in feeding regulation (Jiang Qingyan, 2012)
Compound sweetener is a kind of sweetener which combines two or more natural or synthetic sweeteners with synergists and flavor improvers. It can give full play to the advantages of single sweetener and overcome its disadvantages to achieve comprehensive sweetness effect. Compound technology utilizes the synergistic effect of various sweeteners and the physiological characteristics of taste to achieve better sweetness effect.
Free-choice experiment is to provide two or more different types of feed to the experimental animals during a certain period of time, so that they can freely choose to eat. Animals were allowed to choose their own diets according to their preferences under certain conditions to determine their preferences for different feed flavoring agents.
1 Materials and Methods
1.1 Test Design
Under the same experimental conditions, three different feeding modes (different feeding ways) were used, and two kinds of sweeteners with the same value were added to the diet for piglets to feed freely. The preference index was determined to determine the*preference degree and the luring effect of different sweeteners on the preference of piglets, and the influence of different feeding modes on the preference of piglets. Degree. The basic diet was corn-soybean meal diet.
The first round*experiment*set up two feeding tanks of the same size and shape in each circle and fixed in front of the piglet nursery respectively (the spacing between each feeding tank is the same). The number of piglets (each pig) can be identified by special marking ink marking the naked eye and monitoring equipment is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. Piglets were raised in 3.25m *1.90m pens, and the camera was installed directly above the pen, ensuring that the camera installed could monitor the whole pen. The experiment lasted for 8 days and was preconditioned for 1 day.
In the second round, a bucket material trough with the same diameter, color and shape was installed at the top of the triangle near the water dispenser in the middle of the circle and fixed well. The number of piglets (each pig) can be identified by special marking ink marking the naked eye and monitoring equipment is 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. The piglets were pre-fed for one day before the formal experiment (the purpose of pre-feeding was to prevent piglets*preference for feeding tanks). The same diet was added to all three feeding pots during pre-feeding. In the formal experiment, the control diet and the experimental diet were put into the corresponding pots. Piglets were fed and*drinked freely during the whole experiment. The experiment lasted for 8 days and was preconditioned for 1 day.
The third round of experiments: put 4 tanks in the same circle, 4.5 meters long and 2.4 meters wide, and monitor the whole camera. At the same time, feed A, B, C and D three kinds of materials. The control group's A materials are made up of A1 and A0 respectively. Each feed tank is fed with corresponding feed every day, and the pig feeding situation is observed at any time, so as to ensure that there is surplus material in each tank. Piggery management is carried out according to routine management, free feeding, free drinking water and immunization according to the normal procedure of piggery. Observe and record the growth and feed intake of the test pigs, and accurately record the feed volume. The experiment lasted for 8 days and was preconditioned for 1 day.
1.2 Testing animals and grouping
In the first round of experiment, 64 weaned piglets of 28 days old, weighing about 8.21 (+1 kg) and having similar parity, were selected, all of them were weaned DLY Three-way Hybrid (commercial) piglets. They were randomly divided into 4 diet groups, 4 replicates in each group, and 6 pigs in each replicate. The design was positive and negative in two control groups (blank group), T0 and T1.