Feed flavor is a kind of feed additive which can improve the sensory properties of feed, make feed more delicious, promote the secretion of digestive juice and increase appetite. It is mainly composed of flavoring agents, sweeteners and other functional flavoring agents. Its main components are various flavoring materials of food safety and functional factors that can promote the regulation of animal feeding.
The application of biotechnology in condiments can be traced back to ancient times. Human ancestors used microorganisms to produce edible vinegar and sauce. At present, the so-called biotechnology mainly refers to the use of biological systems, the application of advanced biological and engineering technology, to change some characteristics of organisms for material transformation, production of various monomer or complex products needed by human beings.
With the continuous development and widespread popularization of biotechnology, biotechnology has been applied more and more in the production of condiments, and plays an increasingly important role. The development and production level of condiments is constantly upgraded to a new level.
It is foreseeable that a new "biological revolution" will soon be ushered in in the field of seasoning in the future. Now we will interpret the application of the "four major projects" of biotechnology in the field of feed seasoning, including enzyme engineering, fermentation engineering, genetic engineering and cell engineering.
The chemical nature of enzymes is protein, which is composed of 20 kinds of amino acids. As a biocatalyst, enzymes play an inestimable role in many chemical reactions. Through the catalysis of enzymes, especially immobilized enzymes, the production process can be simplified, the production cost can be reduced, and the operating environment can be improved. Its economic benefits are considerable. With the improvement of people's awareness of environmental protection and quality of life, enzymes have been widely used in medicine, food, chemical industry and other fields. As a process cofactor, enzymes have been used more and more in the production of seasoning materials. As a catalyst, it can participate in biochemical reactions. It can selectively generate natural or semi natural aromatic materials, participate in the production of feed flavoring agents, and even directly obtain natural flavors such as milk flavor and meat flavor through enzymatic hydrolysis.
Fragrant raw materials are substances that can be sniffed or scented or tasted by taste. They are raw materials for flavoring and flavoring agents. With American and European laws stipulating that "natural" spices can only be prepared by physical processes (extracted from natural raw materials) or enzymatic engineering or microbial fermentation engineering, the technology of producing spices by fermentation of natural substances and enzymatic treatment has developed rapidly. Optical perfumes synthesized by special enzymatic reactions have also been widely used. For example, esters are mostly floral, fruity, wine or sweet. Therefore, esters and lactones play an important role in the formulation of our feed seasoning products, and they are indispensable to us. At present, chemical synthesis is the most commonly used way to synthesize esters in the market, but with the increasing safety requirements of human beings, natural products are more and more popular, so the synthesis of natural esters by enzymatic engineering has attracted great attention. Enzymatic synthesis of natural esters is mainly achieved by enzymatic hydrolysis of lipids. At present, the enzymatic synthesis of aliphatic esters, ethyl lactate, geranyl acetate and other aromatic raw materials has been very mature, and has been widely used in practical production. In addition to catalytic synthesis of esters, the enzymatic production of vanillin, folic alcohol, menthol, lactone and thiols has been quite mature, which lays a good foundation for upgrading the quality of milk and fruit flavors in feed seasoning. It can be seen that enzymatic engineering is playing a more and more important role in the formulation of feed condiments, and the future development space will be very broad.
The so-called fermentation engineering is to use the role of microorganisms to achieve the production of special products. According to the different characteristics of microorganisms, they can secrete specific enzymes or participate in specific transformation reactions under special circumstances, and then produce certain products needed by human beings. In fact, microbial fermentation engineering is the earliest biotechnology applied in the field of seasoning. It can be traced back to the brewing of soy sauce, soy sauce, edible vinegar and various wines by human ancestors. Modern microbial fermentation technology was developed in the mid-19th century on the basis of thousands of practical experience accumulated by human beings. It was used as a carrier of advanced technology such as genetic engineering, cell engineering and enzyme engineering to participate in large-scale production of food industry, chemical industry and pharmaceutical industry.
Microbial fermentation is a series of biochemical reactions carried out by microorganisms. It has the characteristics of mild reaction conditions, extensive and renewable raw materials, simple process and friendly environment. Therefore, it has attracted great attention in the field of condiments. For example, at present, natural ethyl couple products are mainly produced by biotechnology companies in the United States, Germany and Japan through microbial fermentation. It can be used as flavoring agent for butter, dairy, yogurt and vanilla. Recently, it has been reported that foreign countries have made breakthroughs in using papaya, soybean and sunflower seed oil to ferment Apple complex aroma.
At the same time, microbial fermentation of vanillin, an important component of milk, is also rapidly rising due to the limitation of vanilla bean resources. Shandong University, Northeast Agricultural University, Shaanxi University of Science and Technology and other universities are also carrying out such technology research. Vanillin is produced by microbial fermentation mainly through ferulic acid obtained from the bran cell wall of wood, weeds or cereals as a fermentation substrate, which undergoes specific microgenesis.