Notes on the Attendance to the 2015 Sunbird Animal Husbandry Development Conference (22 April)
Academician McConson, Chinese Academy of Engineering: Research on Forage Frontier Areas and Countermeasure without Confrontation
For the current use of antibiotics at home and abroad, such as Norway consumes 1 g of antibiotics in a ton of aquatic products, while Vietnam consumes 700 g, and Asian countries consume 700 times more antibiotics than developed countries.
Alternatives to antibiotics:
Phage therapy - specific killing of pathogenic bacteria, is the general name of viruses infected with bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, or spirochetes. Because some of them can cause the lysis of host bacteria, it is called bacteriophage.
Advantages: High specificity (non-broad spectrum), low probability of drug resistance. Phage with a broad spectrum of target pathogenic strains is more ideal. In commercial incubator of natural outbreak of Vibrio luminescens, the survival rate of Penaeus monodon larvae was increased from 17% to 86% by using bacteriophages, while that of Penaeus monodon larvae using antibiotics (5 mg/l-oxytetracycline+10 mg/l-kanamycin) was only 40%. Limitations of bacteriophages: 1. Virulence genes may be carried and transferred. Therefore, safety assessment must be carried out before use. Drug resistance may also occur quickly. The way to overcome this problem is to isolate new phages regularly, use a "cocktail formula" or use phage components instead of complete phages.
Inhibiting Vibrio II Chromosome Replication: Techniques specifically for Vibrio. Chromosome II replication primer RctB is only the basis of specific biological control and partial code expression in Vibrio bacteria. In 2009, a small molecule compound was found to be an inhibitor of RctB, which had bactericidal activity against all tested Vibrios.
Inhibiting pathogenic bacteria growth (not killing): short-chain fatty acids and polyhydroxyalkanoates (added to water or feed)
Short-chain fatty acids can reduce digestive tract pH, inhibit neutrophilic pathogens, and benefit acidophilic probiotics.
The shortcomings of using short-chain fatty acids in aquatic feeds: dissolution, high dosage; synergistic measures: adding probiotics (such as lactobacillus) that can produce acid in the digestive tract; adding short-chain fatty acid polymer of beta-hydroxyl: decomposing into fatty acids in the digestive tract, the effect is the same.
Cinnamaldehyde (food additive), generally recognized as safe (GRAS), has recently been found to have activities similar to halogenated furanones.
Antiviral therapy: It not only interferes with the regulation system of multi-virulence factor expression, but also directly inhibits specific pathogenic factors, such as toxin secretion system, toxin (such as protease) or adhesion factor. However, few studies have been carried out on pathogens in aquaculture.
How Doctor Zhou Yuyan of Guangdong Hainachuan Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Reasonably Chooses Functional Protein Raw Materials for Non-Resistant Feed
First, the livestock exporters represented by the United States, Brazil, Canada and Australia advocate rational use, scientific monitoring to ensure the economic benefits and competitiveness of intensive farming; second, the importing countries of livestock and poultry products represented by the European Union and Japan set strict prohibitions and residue standards, set technical barriers to other countries, increase the production costs of importing countries, and suppress them. The scale economic benefit of importing countries will enhance the competitiveness of domestic livestock and poultry breeding industry.
EU: In 1997, the World Health Organization initiated in Berlin to use antibiotics cautiously in animal feed in order to reduce the spread of resistance to pathogens.
At the end of 1998, the European Union promulgated a ban on Bacillus fetal zinc, spiramycin, virginiamycin and tylosin as growth promoters.
At present, the use of antibiotics as feed additives has been completely prohibited.
Japan: Since 2008, the use of all antibiotics in feed has been banned.
The United States: The United States is one of the largest exporters of livestock and poultry products in the world. It plays an important role in setting standards for the use of antibiotic growth promoters. The policy of using antibiotics in animal feed in the United States is to attach importance to the problem of drug resistance and residue even when used. In 1996, the United States established a national antibiotic resistance prosecution system. Once drug-resistant bacteria were detected, relevant laws were enacted, including the withdrawal of drug use licenses. An industry guidance document of the FDA pointed out that the plan was to ban the use of antibiotics for three years from 2014. Preventive antibiotics are used in livestock feed.
China: Drug residues not only affect the safety of animal food in China, but also affect the export of animal products in China. Because the breeding environment in China is worse than that in Europe and America, the dependence on the use of drug additives is stronger, and the abuse of drug additives may be more serious.
Significance of non-anti-feed: Long-term over-dosage of antibiotics aggravates drug residues in livestock and poultry, seriously affects food safety, endangers human health, pollutes the environment, and faces huge policy risks.
No feed resistance requirements: livestock and poultry disease-free, and good growth indicators.
Pig health and morbidity depend on two factors, one is its own disease resistance, the two is the number of pathogens. When the number of pathogens exceeds that of the pig itself, the pig will become ill. But when the disease resistance decreases, even if the number of pathogens is small, pigs are also sick and affect reproduction. Therefore, the effective way to solve the problem of pigs is to reduce the number of pathogens and increase the resistance of pigs.
Comparison of several functional raw materials:
Plasma protein powder: plasma protein powder is a high protein feed material collected from fresh healthy pig blood after anticoagulation, cold chain transportation, separation, filtration and concentration, centrifugal spray drying process.
Advantages 1: Crude protein about 70%, amino acid quality, such as Lys 6.14%.
Advantages 2: good palatability;
Advantages 3: Rich in IgG;
Advantages 4: Products