Attendance Notes of Feed Technology Exchange Activities between China and the United States in 2015
Professor J.E. Pettigrew, University of Illinois, USA: Nutrition of Suckling Pigs*
1 the study found that adding a high proportion of soybean meal to the feed is beneficial to the disease. Increasing the diet by 50% on the basis of soybean meal can increase the daily gain of pigs. Maybe it is because the isoflavones and isoflavones in the high soybean meal can be improved.
2. Dairy products are the key to suckling pig feed. It was found that whey powder and oil were treated differently. In the control group, oil group, whey powder group and whey powder*oil group, the effect of whey powder group was significantly higher than that of other groups in daily gain.
In the experiment of corn, oat, barley and rice, the health effects of barley and rice were better than those of corn in the dead pig scouring rate. From the component analysis, the crude fibers of barley and rice were more than that of corn.*
Academician Li Defa of the Chinese Academy of Engineering
1. The average annual growth rate of grain is 1.93%, the average annual growth rate of formula feed is 15.37%, and the contradiction between the demand and supply of feed raw materials is becoming more and more prominent.
James K. Drackley, Professor, Department of Animal Science, University of Illinois, Irbana-Champaign, USA: "Progress in Calf Research and Feeding Management in the USA"
The golden rule of calf growth in the United States is that the weight of 56-day-old calves is twice the birth weight, the daily gain is 0.73 kg/day, the mortality rate is less than 5%, and the morbidity rate is less than 10%.
2. The rapid growth of health begins with the management of calves after birth: management at birth; healthy calves and efficient growth depend on good colostrum management;
3. Feeding plan in natural state: cow's milk, 25% - 26% protein (dry base); feeding rate is at least twice as much as that of traditional milk powder (1 kg of solid and 0.5 kg) fed with multiple meals; the first feeding of solid feed must be high quality fresh grass; the time required to leave milk is 3 - 6 months vs 4 - 8 weeks;
4. The results of experiment showed that the weight gain of calves with cows after birth was three times faster than that of calves.
5. The influence of daily gain before weaning on future milk production: daily gain before weaning contributes 22% to first-born milk production; daily gain reaches 1 kg, first-born cow milk production increases 850 kg (Cornell University) and 1113 kg (commercial cattle farm); second-born milk production is more different;
Examples of using calf milk powder in accelerated growth planning: adjusting calf milk powder protein (25-28%) and fat (15-20%); feeding volume in the first week was 1.5% of body weight. 2% from the second week; feeding once between the fifth and sixth weeks (not in the afternoon), weaning before six weeks of age;
7. Benefits of feeding calf milk powder: no cost of bus disinfection is needed to achieve bio-safety (electricity and labor, etc.), consistency and convenience;
Precision and consistency are very important: 10-15% solids are required in concentration, and 40.56 C is required in temperature when calves drink milk.
9. Digestion of non-casein calf milk powder: Calf milk powder in the United States usually uses only whey proteins (dried whey powder, whey protein concentrate and lactose-free whey powder); whey protein is essential for calf health and growth (high digestibility in small intestine; excellent amino acid balance, non-milk-derived protein is also digested in small intestine)
Most calf milk powder contains some non-milk-derived proteins. Current studies show that calf milk powder protein can still perform well when it is limited to less than 50% and replaced by these vegetable proteins.
Why do digestive problems arise? Because non-milk-derived proteins contain antinutritional factors (especially soybean flour), antigen proteins, undigestible oligosaccharides, protease inhibitors, tannins and plant phenolic compounds, etc.
12 studies found that soy protein concentrate replaced 60% milk protein could reduce calf growth.
13 Feeding high dosage of soybean protein concentrate did not reduce the growth performance and health of calves: in 28% protein calf milk powder, 50% protein was replaced by soybean protein concentrate, 1-1.5 kg dry matter per head per day; balance of all essential amino acids, minerals and isoosmotic pressure concentration was achieved; daily gain of whole milk and part of soybean protein concentrate calf milk powder was 1.01 kg and 0.96 kg, respectively. Catties;
14 cases: Amino acids were added to calf milk powder containing plasma protein powder. Calf milk powder contained 22% protein and 20% fat, 2% lysine, and the ratio of methionine to lysine was 0.31. Five treatment groups were set up, including whole milk protein group, 5% PP plasma protein plus amino acid, 5% PP but with isoleucine and tryptophan, 10% PP plasma protein plus methionine, 10% PP plasma protein plus isoleucine, and 10% PP plus isoleucine. Compared with tryptophan, 5% PP had the best effect.
Professor Li Shengli, China Agricultural University: "Technology and Practice for Improving Survival Rate and Health of Chinese Holstein Calves"
1 Indicators of typical domestic and foreign large-scale ranch calves: China: birth weight, 38-40 kg, 8-week-old body weight, 76-80 kg, weaning age, 6.5-8 wk, high body weight of primary ligand, 122-3250 px, 355-423 kg, first pregnant month age, 14-16.
China: Birth weight, 38-40 kg, 8-week-old weight, 76-80 kg, weaning age, 6.5-8 wk, high body weight of primary ligand, 122-3250 px, 355-423 kg, first pregnant age, 14-16
USA: Birth weight, 41-43 kg, 8-week-old weight, 80-86 kg, weaning age, 7-8 wk, high body weight of primary ligand, 350-370 kg, first pregnant age, 13-14;
Netherlands: Birth weight, 40 kg, 8-week-old weight, 78-84 kg, weaning age, 9-10 wk, high body weight of primary ligand, 390-400 kg, first pregnant age, 15
2 Feeding Standards: Colostrum: 1 day, 4-6 kg; Normal milk: 2-60 days, 6-9 kg; Whole lactation: Fresh milk or milk powder feeding; Start-feeding: 1-1.5 kg; NEL: 7.5 MJ/kg; Calf increasing day by day.